Newcomer Integration Policies in Canada

This paper describes integration policy and programs in Canada, excluding those in the Province of Quebec.  It underscores two defining features of the Canadian approach: i) the “two-way street” approach to integration; and ii) the delivery of the bulk of services by third parties, primarily in the non-governmental sector.  In the first section, the Canadian “shared citizenship” or “diversity model” frames the discussion.  The second part lays out the major policies and programs in place to facilitate the integration of newcomers, and the third section discusses the challenges and some of the policy/program solutions to these challenges in four key areas: housing; labour market; education; and newcomer relations with public administration (civic participation, justice and health). Major conclusions include the finding that most challenges are being tackled by a range of programs and policies, but to be more effective, better co-ordination is key.  Naturally more resources would be ideal, but only after co-ordination is improved.  Finally, more of a focus on the intersections of other identity markers with newcomer status would better address the needs of newcomers as they seek to integrate into Canada. […]